Logic has been defined as the science of the laws of thought. If thought refers to any process that occurs in people’s minds, not all thought is an object of study for the logician. Logic has also been called the science of reasoning. Reasoning are drawn thinking in which inference taken place and conclusions are drawn from the premises. However, one may ask, as to whether the conclusions reached follow by necessity from the premises. The study of the methods and principles used to distinguish between correct and incorrect reasoning is the central theme and issue with which logic deals.
All reasoning is thinking, but not all thinking is reasoning. The laws that describe the movement of the mind are psychological laws rather than logical principles. To define logic in this way is to include too much.
Also, logic can also be defined as the study of the matches and principles used to distinguish correct from incorrect reasoning. When we reason about any matter, we produce arguments to support our conclusions or inferences. Our argument, include reason that justify our beliefs/conclusions.
Let us begin by examining the most fundamental concepts in the study of logic. In reasoning, we construct and evaluate arguments, arguments are built with propositions.